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References or entries relating to poets and librettists must be furnished in catalogues. Monographs and books on Rocks, Minerals, Chemical Compounds, etc. The extraordinary mmiber of processes, functions, organs, etc. Places have been found for all the chief departments of human biology, as distinguished from Com- parative Biology, but in cases where it is necessary, combination of nimibers must be resorted to for minute classification.
Here again, provision has been made in the Categorical Tables for subdividing, say. Buddhistic Eschatology from Christian Eschatology. The difference is best shown by examples: Liturgies of the World General K It is possible, by using these church plus categorical numbers, to disentangle the vast literature of religion, which in some libraries is hidden away under one number! M Language, Literature, Bibliography. Dietionaries of more than one language are to be arranged under the language which is not that of the nationality of the library, i,e,, Greek- English, French-English, English-German dictionaries would, in an English library, be numbered at M In a German library the same local treatment would ocoir.
In the case of German-Latin, French-Greek, Italian- Russian and other combinations, arrange in an English library under the name of the language which comes first in alphabetical order. Languages and Literatures go together. In many cases separate numbers are provided. They can, however, be divided by means of the Categorical Tables, thus: It is sometimes difficult to find exact places for some events, but generally, if they are spread over two or more reigns, it is best to place them in the reign when they commenced.
To secure minute subdivisions in a reign the Chronological Tables can be used — Vssifz. X Biography including Correspondence and Criticism. Also the biographies of individuals, in an alphabet of biographical names, to be fixed by the special Combination Tables at X, etc.
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When it is thought better to distribute the individual biography at subjects, a very inconvenient and frequently impossible task, the subject of the biography must get the topic number from the Classification Tables, plus the categorical number for Biography: Apart from this, there are practical difficulties in the way so far as libraries are concerned, and unless for special purposes, biography should invariably be kept by itself.
In collective Biography, topic is to be considered paramount to race, nationality or sex. Criticism, Ana, Biographical Collaterals. This is a difficult problem, as it is hard to determine, for example, what is the most constant place for criticism on Shakespeare and his works, in whole or in part. For convenience sake it is thought best in this classification to gather all general criticism and commentary at the Biographical number, but to place commentaries and elucidations of single worlds with such worlds.
Commentaries on Shakespeare X Hudson. Titus Andronicus X Martin. Shakespeare's Female characters X Ellacombe. Plant Lore of Shakespeare X Hazhtt. Memoranda on Love's labour lost See also Section 47 for Mr. Dent's proposed arrangement of Shakespeare The effect of such an arrangement is to assemble every general or personal biography, study, criticism, or the ana of a celebrated individual at one well-defined and easily found place.
On the other hand, studies of great works, like the numerous expositions of Dante's Inferno , would naturally go with the poem, while the biographies of Dante would take the biographical number. Biographical Numbers for subdividing and maintaining Alphabetical order X, etc. This table is to be used exclusively for numbering authors in any subject where necessary, so as to distinguish one from another. In large libraries this will be found necessary in many cases, both imder subjects in catalogues and elsewhere.
But in individual biography, fiction, poetry and other classes it will be found useful in piroviding a fixed place for most alphabetical combinations, and assembling similar names at one place. With regard to the distinction of authors under subject-heading, the following examples will show clearly how the numbers are applied.
As indicated by the table itself, numbers are substituted for every arrangement of two or three letters of the alphabet, and by combining these when necessary any alphabetical combination can be numerically expressed. Natural history of Plants Bentley. See also at X Notation— the Numbering of Boolss. Numerous plans for effecting this numbering so as to differentiate one book from another have been devised, and the principal schemes are here briefly outlined.
For whatever purpose required it seems much simpler to arrange books on shelves, in charging systems, in catalogues, or anywhere else, in a plain and easy sequence of author's names in alphabetical order, under each division or subdivision of a class or subject, thus: Elementary text-book on zoology Edwards H. Manual of zoology Hertwig R.
General principles of zoology Parker T. Text-book of zoology Nicholson H. Manual of zoology Sedgwick A. Student's text-book of zoology Practically speaking, it is just as easy for anyone to find F Failing acceptance of this obvious and commonsense method, the second in ease of application is probably the use of the accession numbers, which most libraries apply to books in addition to any class or other number. These accession numbers are generally arranged in a progressive series, so that no two books can possibly be numbered alike. When such numbers are used they can be applied in two ways: Elementary text-book of zoology Hertwig R.
General principles of zoology or in dictionary catalogue Zoology, Systematic Text-bookis. Elementary text-book of zoology F Hertwig R. General principles of zoology The charging number would thus become, in the case of Claus, Fooo. A fourth plan is to use the symbols devised by the late Mr. Cutter, which have been published in tabular form, and are entitled the " Cutter Author Marks. As the Biographical Table X, etc.
In practical application the Cutter marks are used as follows: A filth method, restricted to places, has been devised by Blr. Merrill, of the Newberry Library, Chicago, and as it may be found useful for subdivisions in small libraries, it is here given in full with the author's kind permission: MeFrill Alphabeting Hvaahen— continued. Manual of Z boloerv 25 A sixth method consists in the use of the first three letters of the author's name, added to the class number, and in most cases this is a sufficient mark for all ordinary purposes, though it is sometimes necessary to extend the number of letters used.
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In actual practice it appears thus: Parker Two methods of applying these letters are described in the Library World, Vol. Jast and Anderson respectively. Title or BooIk Numbers. A plan sometimes adopted is to use the ordinary alphabetical name tables. Thus if a library has a set of Mrs. Oliphant's novels, one gets the following collection of first words: Neither of the numerical systems are of use save for the libraries in which they are employed, because the numbers mean nothing, and are mere arbitrary symbols which are not generally standardised.
There is a certain amount of convenience in this, and several plans have been devised for marking books so as to indicate what order is intended.
The simplest scheme, that of Mr. All other books are numbered with the letter and the year number, ignoring centuries, as in this example in the Dewey Notation: These symbols can be used for closely distinguishing events in the regnal years of monarchs.
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A one-letter table can be devised by using varieties of type, as with the hall- marking of gold and silver plate, but of course, it would be unsuitable for manuscript purposes. Other Marks and Indications. But in these days of separate catalogues and libraries, this is a refinement which seems hardly necessary. The pros and cons of Vegetarianism, Slavery, Roman Catholicism, Temperance, and hundreds of other subjects may require indication in large libraries, and a simple way of doing so, if the books cannot be actually separated on shelves or in catalogues, is to mark the Class number with a sign which shall clearly distinguish the standpoint.
An asterisk, for example, could indicate the pro, or favourable view, and a double asterisk the anti or unfavourable view, thus: The smoking habit In cases where catalogues are properly annotated, no marking will be necessary. It does not affect the class or subject numbers, and it is now the general practice to make size notation a part of the catalogue entry. In libraries strictly classified it is best to separate the folio and quarto books from the octavoes, and to store them in specially made cases. Dummies or blanks can be inserted in the spaces which should be occupied by folios and quartos, bearing a reference to the place where they can be found.
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It also directs to some unnumbered subjects, such as historical events in the reigns of different monarchs, and other matters which are included in divisional or main headings. It has not been thought necessary to repeat under national heads the various sciences, arts and historical categories which could be assembled there, nor at subject-words has it been deemed proper to show the national divisions of such topics.
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Biographical names are also omitted, and also all references to unnumbered geographical or historical areas. The Index number is the one to be applied in the first instance, when a subject is definitely ascertained, and the subdivisions must be taken from the Categorical Tables. From this rule there can be no departure by strict users of the classification. On the other hand, the specialist or standpoint classifier who prefers to assemble all his material at a particular place, can do so by using the abstract place, and qualifying it by means of the Categorical Table or numbers from the Classification itself.
Thus, a bibUographer can use the mark M and then proceed to subdivide it thus: When he has exhausted these tables he can proceed to the National, Linguistic or Biographical Tables, as follows: It is difficult, sometimes, to say where a place is, what a name means, when an event occurred, or who a person was, and for that reason the following books should always be accessible. A good Atlas, with a full reference index.
A good modem Gazetteer, general. A good modem National Gazetteer for the country in which the Library is. Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, last edition. Blair's or other full Chronological Tables.
Full text of "Subject Classification, with Tables, Indexes, Etc., for the Subdivision of Subjects"
Beatson's Book of Dignities Haydn. A good Biographical Dictionary. A Dictionary of Scientific Terms.