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- The Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Developing Countries
- What Is Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM)?
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McDivitt ed. Chakraborty M. Cramer S. Ghose A. New Delhi, pp 49—58 Google Scholar. Ghose, A. New Delhi, pp 29—42 Google Scholar. Ghose M.
The Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Developing Countries
Assessment of socio-economic impacts due to a coal washery project Jr. Impact assessment of coal washery projects on socio-economic environment-an Indian case studyJr. K, Characteristics of iron ore tailing slimes in India and its test for required pond sizeEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment 51—61 CrossRef Google Scholar. Hickie D. Kundu N. Rathore S. As is noted in the introduction to this document "The fact that much of ASM activity occurs outside regulatory frameworks — whether illegal or not — can also present significant challenges for companies and regulators.
There can be significant tension between ASM miners and their own governments — with companies caught in the middle. Peru's government passed legislation in which aimed to formalise and promote artisanal gold mining activity, seen as a "great source of employment and collatoral benefits". Despite this legislative commitment, the complexities involved in formalisation efforts have seen subsequent governments shy away from such initiatives.
Authorities charged with implementing the legislation and regulating the activity, lack the finance and personnel necessary to carry out such tasks effectively. As the price of gold grew on international markets, formal large-scale mining in South Africa shed jobs, while labour unrest and strikes led to increasing layoffs of mine workers on the large mines. South Africa has some of deepest and largest gold mines in the world, with some of the largest deposits of gold, platinum, diamonds and other precious metals, precious stones and dimension stone.
Gold deposits, in particular began to be exploited by artisanal miners, and ' illegal miners ', known as zamazama isiZulu , lit.
What Is Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM)?
According to the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act of , only large, fully registered, capital intensive industry may prospect for, mine and process minerals. The South African government is the legal owner or 'custodian' of all underground resources irrespective of land rights or title on the land surface.
While any small scale and artisanal miners are, by definition, illegal, all natural resources covered by the act are deemed to be "the common heritage of all the people of South Africa". This provision gives many illegal miners the justification they need, and that they feel is important, to mine these resources for their own account, regardless of the other provisions of the Act.
Only some minerals, such as gold and diamonds, can be mined in an artisanal fashion. Gold and diamonds exist in shallow surface deposits in South Africa, as well as in deep deposits. For instance, Tau Tona gold mine to the west of Johannesburg, extends four kilometres 2. Outside of the large formal mines, artisanal mining takes two forms. The 'illegal miners', or zamazama. The overall pool of miners, that is, of men who identify as miners and wish to work in mining, includes many who are partially employed, employed by labour brokers, outsourced workers, and other part-time or unemployed miners who often live in informal settlements around the large mines.
Artisanal miners are of three kinds: 'illegal' miners, artisanal miners, and peripheral or part-time miners who may shift back and forth from between formal, illegal, and artisanal mining work.
Artisanal miners who gain access to formal mines through disused shafts and adits are called 'illegal miners' or zamazama. They compete with formally employed legal mine labour in large underground mines for gold. The zamazama may live underground for many weeks, while collecting sufficient quantities of high grade ore for further processing.
They are often miners who have been trained in formal mining techniques, but then laid off. They resort to illegal mining in order to continue to utilise their skills. Their social networks with other formally employed miners help them to obtain access to underground mine workings. Other miners are properly artisanal, opening adits and driving shafts and tunnels using hand tools such as hammers, chisels and spades. They train each other and typically have little or no formal mining experience. The nature of gold deposits helps to determine the type of artisanal mining.
On the Witwatersrand reef, gold is found in the form of very fine particles in hard-rock sedimentary conglomerate rock in steeply inclined deposits.
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These different formation require different artisanal and formal mining methods, with different social and economic structures. For instance, the deep mines of Johannesburg are capital intensive and deep, while the associated artisanal mining is shallow and relatively unprofitable.
Artisanal miners usually operate as teams that carry the process through from underground mining and sorting the ore, to production of the finished gold for sale. Artisanal mining in the Barberton region produces relatively large nuggets in reasonably profitable mining ventures. Formal mines, such as Agnes, Fairview, Consort, and Barbrook, are relative small, and artisanal mining is growing in the region.
Since artisanal mining is illegal in South Africa, it is difficult to estimate its economic value. In gold bearing regions such as Roodeport and Barberton, specialised settlements and organisations have emerged recently since Artisanal mining in South Africa probably has a long history, but this has not been documented. For Zimbabwe, Roger Summers has mapped extensive pre-colonial mines, prospecting trenches, and early processing sites, but this has so far not been done for South Africa. Violence is a constant problem in the artisanal mining sector. This is often caused by conflict between miners and police and private security personnel, and between different groups of miners competing for resources.
However, there is also a remarkable degree of mutual respect among the miners, especially in the face of the dangers presented by conflict above ground, and the danger of work underground. Typically, artisanal miners are young males, but there are occasional female underground workers. Women and children are often involved in sorting and pulverising the ore above ground, and in transporting food, materials, and other logistic support.
Gold ore is processed informally using simple technologies. Ore is first crushed by hand on open rock surface and hammerstones. This work is often done by women and children. The pulverised ore is concentrated using visual sorting, sieving, gold panning , and by washing on riffle tables made of plastic sheets on heaps of sand.
Final gold extraction is accomplished using mercury amalgamation. Mercury is typically burned off using an oxy-gas torch. The gold is sold to local agents, or may be exported directly to major markets for raw gold including India, China, Israel and Lebanon. This multiplier effect often results in the local economies of entire towns and communities being built up around, and dependent upon, the sector as their main source of livelihood.
These mines are a vital source of income for communities, but many operate outside the law and leak chemicals into rocks, soil and rivers. Working conditions can be appalling, and the metal and stones dug up are often smuggled across borders on a vast scale, sometimes by criminal The study is as up-to-date as current evidence allows acknowledging the data deficiences , and rigorously addresses practises in individual states Indonesia, Philippines, Ghana get good treatment.
Ecological features of small-scale mining in Ghana Small-scale mining poses not only serious health and safety consequences for workers involved but also has a significant environmental impact on the surrounding communities Armah et al. Looking for abbreviations of CASM? It is Communities and Small-scale Mining.
However, due to research specialization and discipline-specific worldviews, seldom does research integrate the natural and social dimensions of the impacts of gold mining in a single paper [8,9]. However, the ….
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The impact of small-scale gold mining on mining communities in Ghana. Kate Smits, an associate professor of civil engineering at The University of An artisanal miner or small-scale miner ASM is a subsistence miner who is not officially employed by a mining company, but works independently, mining various minerals or panning for gold using their own resources.
Small-scale mining includes enterprises or individuals that employ workers for mining, but generally using manually-intensive methods, working with hand tools. Small-scale mining in Ghana as a sustainable development activity: Its development and a review of the contemporary issues and challenges.
Hilson Ed. The Netherlands: A. Many artisanal and small-scale miners are achieving high rates of gold recovery without mercury, benefiting their health, the health of their communities, and the environment.